# Luigi vs. Airflow

Posted on 21 May 2017

## Pipelines

Luigi and Airflow are two pipelining libraries written in Python produced by teams at Spotify and Airbnb respectively. Recently at work, we had cause to examine these two pipelining libraries, and here I will sum up what we found. In the end, Airflow got the most favorable votes from the team, mainly for it’s ability to scale better.

### Luigi

Luigi is a python pipelining framework designed by the data science team at Spotify. It’s main object is a class called Task, which has three main methods to use when constructing a pipeline: requires, output, and run. The requires method is used to define which other tasks are prerequisites for the task in question. The output method is used to define what the output of the task will be– whatever this is will be what a requires method will check for to see if a certain task has completed. This could be a local file, a file on S3, record in a database, etc. The run method is what the task actually does– pull data from an API, train a machine learning model, upload records to a database, etc.

• A Luigi Task is straightforward to define, but it can be difficult if a Task needs to be changed. Any tasks that depend on that task need to have that output specified in the requires method, which can be cumbersome if there are lots of them and they have to all be changed individually.

• Luigi has a number of pre-baked Tasks $\text{(e.g. S3 Tasks, Redshift Tasks, R Tasks)}$ to help with some fairly common operations.

• Luigi has a pipeline visualizer in the form of a webapp that can be run locally. It has information about which tasks have are running, have failed, or completed successfully, as well as a graph of the task dependencies.

• In order to kick off a Luigi pipeline, it must be started from the command line– either manually or through some cron job.

• If a pipeline fails and stops running, it is easy $\text{(once the reason for failure is addressed)}$ to restart the pipeline, and only the unfinished Tasks will run. However, it is difficult to re-run a pipeline once it has fully completed.

• As stated on the documentation page for Luigi, does not scale well beyond tens of thousands of jobs in a single pipeline. This is partly due to the fact that it does not handle execution distribution.

### Airflow

• An Airflow task is straightforward to define. There are a number of pre-baked operators that can be used to build tasks, including BashOperator, PythonOperator, HTTPOperator, and SqlOperator. For instance the PythonOperator is used to tell the Task to execute a Python function. Then, separate from the Task itself, the dependencies are specified.

• Airflow Tasks are typically broken down into smaller executable pieces $\text{(like a single function)}$, whereas Luigi Tasks are typically larger operations.

• Airflow has a scheduler that handles kicking off a workflow at specified intervals or times.

• Airflow has a quite extensive Task visualizer that shows the state of all workflows $\text{(running or not running)}$, as well as a graph dependency visualization showing which tasks have been completed, failed, or are currently running. The workflows and tasks can also be managed through the visualizer’s GUI.

• A Task’s operation is separated from it’s state. A record of Task states is kept in a database table. This helps to avoid having to make dummy files to mark the completion of a Task, or some other such method.

• It is easy to rerun a workflow once it has been completed.

• Airflow supports a Celery executor on the backend. This means two things: 1. Airflow can leverage Celery’s concurrent executing and resource allocation power, 2. Allows to easily restart a workflow if one fails partway through, due to the state persistence Celery lends.

## Conclusion

We found Airflow much more suitable for our needs, in large part due to the option to use Celery on the backend. This allows us to dynamically allocate resources to a Task and execute them in parallel. Personally, I find Airflow easier to manage due to the separation of Task operation and state, as well as the ease of use of the visualizer.